Four Types of Laser Cutting

08, 2021


        With the continuous development of science and technology, laser cutting technology is becoming more and more mature. Today, I will introduce the four types of laser cutting technology.

        Laser cutting is currently one of the most popular methods of metal processing. Its principle is to use a focused high-power-density laser beam to irradiate the workpiece to quickly melt, vaporize, ablate or reach the ignition point of the irradiated material. At the same time, it takes advantage of the high-speed coaxial with the beam. The airflow blows away the molten material, thereby realizing the cutting of metal workpieces.

        According to the thermal and physical properties of the processed materials and the auxiliary gas properties, laser cutting can be divided into four types. They are laser vaporization cutting, laser melting cutting, laser oxygen cutting, and laser-controlled fracture.

        1.Laser vaporization cutting

        Using the high-energy and high-density laser beam to heat the workpiece, so that the temperature of the cutting material rises rapidly, reaching the boiling point of the material in a short time, skip the melting step and directly start to vaporize to form vapor. While the steam is blowing out, an incision is formed in the cut material.

        2.Laser melting cutting

         The metal material is heated and melted with a laser, and inactive gas, such as nitrogen, is blown out through a nozzle coaxial with the beam, and the molten liquid metal is discharged by the strong pressure of the gas. The advantage of using laser melting and cutting is that the cutting edge is relatively smooth and general. No need for the secondary processing, higher laser energy requirements and higher gas pressure. Suitable for cutting stainless steel, titanium, aluminum and alloy metals.

        3.laser oxygen cutting

         The principle of laser oxygen cutting is similar to oxyacetylene cutting. It uses laser as the preheating heat source, and uses active gas such as oxygen as the cutting gas. On the one hand, the sprayed gas oxidizes with the cutting metal and releases a large amount of oxidation heat; on the other hand, the molten oxide and melt are blown out of the reaction zone to form a cut in the metal. The cutting speed is fast, and it is mainly suitable for cutting carbon steel metal materials.

         4.laser controlled fracture  

         Laser-controlled fracture is the use of a relatively small laser power to create a sharp temperature distribution in the groove, which generates local thermal stress in the brittle material, causing the material to break along the groove. Larger power will cause the surface of the workpiece to melt and destroy the cutting edge. It is mainly suitable for cutting brittle materials such as silicon wafers and glass.


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