Characteristics and application analysis of laser cutting

11, 2019

by Oree Laser

In the 1920s, the concept of light-induced radiation proposed by Einstein foresees the generation of the laser. After 40 years, the first ruby laser that was first developed by American scientists Meymann in the 1960s marked the official birth of the laser. Subsequently, laser technology is developing rapidly. Following solid-state lasers, gas lasers, chemical lasers, dye lasers, atomic lasers, ion lasers, semiconductor lasers, X-ray lasers, and fiber lasers have been introduced. The application field also extends to such as electronics, light industry, packaging, gifts, hardware industry, medical equipment, automobile, machinery manufacturing, steel, metallurgy, petroleum, etc., providing advanced technical equipment for the technological transformation of traditional industries and the modernization of manufacturing industry.

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Compared with ordinary light, the laser has four properties: monochromatic (single wavelength), coherence, directivity, and specular intensity. The laser beam is easy to transmit, and its time characteristics and spatial characteristics can be separately controlled. After focusing, a very small light spot can be obtained. A laser beam with extremely high power density can melt and vaporize any material, as well as the precision and fast processing of localized areas of the material. The heat input of the workpiece is small, the heat-affected zone and thermal deformation are small; the processing efficiency is high, and it is easy to automate. Laser technology is a comprehensive high-tech, involving optics, mechanics, electronics and other disciplines. Similarly, laser processing equipment also involves in many disciplines, which determines its high-tech and high profitability. Throughout the years of research, development, and improvement of international and domestic laser applications, contemporary laser and laser processing technology have been quite mature and forming a serious of laser processing technology.

Now we introduce the application of laser processing technology in metal cutting.

Characteristics and application of laser cutting

Laser cutting is currently the most widely used laser processing technology. In many fields abroad, for example, automotive manufacturing and machine tool manufacturing, laser cutting is used to process sheet metal parts. With the continuous improvement of the quality of the high-power laser beam, the range of laser cutting processing objects will be more extensive, including almost all metal and non-metal materials. For example, the laser can be used to cut three-dimensional parts with complex shapes on materials with high hardness, high brittleness and high melting point, which is also the advantage of laser cutting.

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Nowadays, enterprises that choose laser cutting systems mainly fall into two categories: one is large and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises, and the products produced by these enterprises have a large number of plates that need to be blanking, cutting, and has a strong economic and technical strength; the other type, collectively referred to as the processing station, specializes in external laser processing business, and has no leading products. On the one hand, its existence can meet the needs of some small and medium-sized enterprises for processing, on the other hand, in the early stage, the promotion and application of laser cutting technology will bring about publicity and demonstration.

Several key technologies foe laser cutting are integrated technologies of light, machine, and electricity. The parameters of the laser beam, the performance, and precision of the machine and the CNC system directly affect the efficiency and quality of laser cutting. The precision, efficiency, and quality of laser cutting vary with different parameters such as cutting power, speed, frequency, material thickness and material, so the operator's extensive experience is especially important.


The main advantages of laser cutting


● Good cutting quality


The slit width is narrow (typically 0.1-0.5mm), high precision (general hole center distance error 0.1-0.4mm, contour size error 0.1~0.5mm), the surface roughness of the slit is good (general Ria is 12.5~25μm). And the slits are generally welded without secondary processing.


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● Cutting speed is fast


For example, the cutting speed of carbon steel with 2kw laser power, a thickness of 8mm is 1.6m/min; the cutting speed of stainless steel with a thickness of 2mm is 3.5m/min, and the deformation is extremely small.

● Clean, safe and non-polluting, greatly improving the working environment of the operators


Laser cutting is a non-contact optical thermal processing, known as the “universal tool that never wears out.”The workpiece can be tightly nested or nested in any form to make full use of the raw materials. Moreover, due to the non-contact processing, the distortion of the machined parts is minimized and the amount of wear is reduced.

Comparison of laser cutting and punching

Previously, the sheet metal processing industry used traditional punching machines for stamping and later developed into CNC turret punch presses and composite machine tools. With the advancement of society, laser cutting technology has also been introduced into the metal processing industry, and it has become an advanced processing method for industrial plate cutting. According to informal statistics, China has used more than 500 laser cutting machines in industrial production, accounting for about 2% of the total operating system in the world.

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In the metalworking industry, laser cutting is widely used in a thickness of no more than 20mm low carbon steel and 8mm stainless steel. Most of the sheet metal parts are complex in shape and small in size, such as automatic elevator structural parts, elevator panels, machine tools, grain machinery covers, various electrical cabinets, switch cabinets, textile machinery parts, engineering machinery parts, large motors silicon steel sheet, etc. Also, some metal patterns, logos, and fonts used in the decoration, advertising and service industries can be manufactured by laser cutting.

CNC brick punch presses are suitable for mass production of simple shapes. The finished products include electrical cabinets, communication system switch cabinets, elevator door panels, armrest panels, and steel furniture. The price of laser cutting machine is generally higher than that of the CNC brick punching machine, but due to its flexibility and other advantages, the production cycle can be shortened (for example, laser cutting does not require the manufacture of molds). In recent years, some manufacturers have gradually realized the high efficiency brought by it. To enhance market competitiveness, enterprises have purchasedlaser cutting machines to adapt to various types of products while having multiple CNC brick punching machines. Therefore, rather than competing with laser cutting machines and CNC brick punching machines, it is better to complement each other.

Laser cutting applications

● Automotive applications

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The advanced 3D laser equipment can not only cut the car body parts but also realize the cutting, welding, heat treatment, cladding and even 3D measurement of the whole car body, to realize the technical requirements that can not be realized by conventional machining. German Express Corporation's 3D laser equipment successfully operated at Mercedes-Benz, Audi, BMW, Volkswagen, General Motors, Ford, Renault, SKODA, Opel, SAAB, Volvo and Daimler Chrysler for many years.

● Wide application in the aviation field

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Many international aerospace engine companies use 3D laser equipment to cut and punch the high-temperature alloy materials in the burner section and have succeeded in laser cutting of aluminum alloy materials or special materials for military and civil aircraft.


Oreelaser's high-speed fiber laser cutting machine for sale is an affordable, easy-to-use, and versatile tool that can help you begin a new startup venture or increase the profits of your well-established company. This type of fiber laser cutter is suitable for cutting stainless steel, carbon steel, alloy steel, spring steel, copper plate, aluminum plate, gold, silver, titanium ect., and has been widely used in advertising, high pressure / low voltage electrical cabinet production, textile machinery accessories, kitchen appliances, cars, machinery, elevators, electrical accessories, spring coil pieces, metro line parts and other industries.

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